Dyslexia-What Are Its Types?
There are plenty of people that are confused with the meaning of dyslexia.
What is dyslexia?
There are two different meanings of dyslexia.
The first meaning is the literal meaning since it is based on the etymology of the word itself, “Dys” means problematic or wrong then “lexia” means pertaining to letters or words. Which means, dyslexia refers to problems with words. People that are having difficulty in reading has dyslexia.
The second meaning is more wider when it comes to its use and its application. This is usually used by dyslexic adults and parents of dyslexics. In the application part, dyslexia refers to a lot of symptom such as problems with spelling, writing and reading, poor memory, does not have physical coordination and has difficulty in hearing.
As you can see ,the meaning of the word dyslexia really greatly depends on how it is being used.
In the year 1973, Newcombe and Marshall subdivided the word dyslexia and they describe each kind dyslexia. They started with the ideas of surface dyslexia, double deficit dyslexia and phonological dyslexia.
Below are the different kinds of dyslexia:
A. Surface dyslexia
One of the symptoms of surface dyslexia is when the person is having mistakes and is inconsistent with the English pronunciation. Here is an example, the word bowl is pronounced as howl and the word pretty is pronounced as jetty.
B. Phonological dyslexia
Phonological dyslexia actually refers to the failure of adapting the phonics of the English language. People find it hard to read new words if they have phonological dyslexia.
C. Double deficit dyslexia
Double deficit dyslexia is the term that they use for individuals that have phonological dyslexia and surface dyslexia.
D. Visual dyslexia and auditory dyslexia
Both of these types are derived from the magnocellular theory of dyslexia. The magnocellular theory states, that people with dyslexia are neurologically weak in their magnocellular cells in the thalamus part of brain. The thalamus is where the auditory and visual information are processed.
There are studies that proves that people with dyslexia have difficulties in processing auditory information and visual information.
This means that children that have poor visual skills but have average hearing skills can be diagnosed as visual dyslexia, and those children that have poor hearing skills but average visual skills are diagnosed with auditory dyslexia.
E. Orthographic dyslexia
Orthography is a group of letters and symbols that will create a language. The English alphabet has 26 letters, while for the Chinese and Japanese language they have a lot of different kinds of symbols. This means that orthographic dyslexia is problems with the identification and manipulation of letters in spelling, writing and reading.
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